Consent: Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy

This article is for educational purposes only. It should not be used as a template for consenting patients. The person obtaining consent should have clear knowledge of the procedure and the potential risks and complications. Always refer to your local or national guidelines, and the applicable and appropriate law in your jurisdiction governing patient consent.

Overview of Procedure

An oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) involves an inspection of the stomach and oesophagus with a flexible endoscope.

This is often done with the aim of assessing the oesophagus for a variety of symptoms, such as upper gastrointestinal symptoms and upper GI bleeding, unexplained weight loss, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Biopsies can be taken if required.

Complications

Intra-Operative

Complication Description of Complication Potential Ways to Reduce Risk
Haemorrhage Damage to the oesophagus or stomach (or particularly varices in those with portal hypertension) may cause significant bleeding, as well as at any biopsy sites.
Perforation Although rare, this can occur, particularly if there is a cancer or pharyngeal pouch.
Sedation risk Sedatives, such as midazolam, are often used yet can depress the cardio-respiratory system. Always use monitoring and beware of using sedation in frail patients with co-existing cardio-respiratory disease or morbid obesity

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