Gastric Cancer

Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally and is the second highest cause of cancer related deaths, mostly due to patients presenting late with advanced disease.

The majority (>90%) of gastric cancers arise from the gastric mucosa as adenocarcinomas. The remainder are a mixture of connective tissue, lymphoid or neuroendocrine malignancies.

In this article, we shall look the risk factors, clinical features and management of a patient with gastric cancer.

Risk Factors

In many Western countries, rates of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in the past few decades (mainly due to an improved diet and treatment of Helicobacter Pylori infections), however it remains extremely common in Far Eastern countries, such as Japan and Korea.

The major risk factors for developing gastric cancer include male, H. pylori infection, increasing age, and smoking. Other risk factors include salt in diet, heavy alcohol consumption, positive family history, and pernicious anaemia.

Helicobacter Pylori

Fig 1 - Scanning electron micrograph image of H. Pylori.

Figure 1 – Scanning electron micrograph image of H. pylori

The most important modifiable risk factor identified in developing gastric cancer is infection of the stomach mucosa by Helicobacter Pylori.

H. Pylori is a Gram negative helical bacterium that produces the urease enzyme, acting to break down urea into COand ammonia. The ammonia neutralises stomach acid, allowing the bacterium to create an alkaline microenvironment. It subsequently sets off a cycle of repeated damage to the epithelial cells, leading to inflammation, ulceration, and ultimately gastric neoplasia.

The risk of gastric cancer is nearly six times higher for H. Pylori-infected than for uninfected individuals. However, whilst around 60% of the world’s population are infected with H. Pylori, less than 0.5% will develop gastric adenocarcinoma.

Clinical Features

The symptoms of gastric cancer are frequently vague and non-specific*, with patients often unfortunately presenting at an advanced stage. The common presenting symptoms include dyspepsia, dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, melena, and haematemesis. Non-specific cancer symptoms (anorexia, weight loss, or anaemia) are markers of late stage disease.

Fig 2 - Acanthosis nigricans, hyperpigmentation of the skin creases.

Fig 2 – Acanthosis nigricans, hyperpigmentation of the skin creases.

On examination, clinical signs are usually completely absent, especially in the early stages. In advanced disease, findings include evidence of anaemia, jaundice or hepatomegaly (indicating likely metastases to the liver), acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation of the skin creases, a non-specific sign seen in gastric cancer), Troisier’s sign (an enlarged Virchow’s node), or a palpable epigastric mass

In the UK, only 40% of patients with gastric cancer are diagnosed via the urgent pathway, the rest are diagnosed after a non-urgent referral, an emergency hospital admission, or were referred by another hospital specialist.

Differential Diagnosis

Gastric cancer often presents with non-specific symptoms and consequently there are a wide range of potential differential diagnoses. Important diagnoses to consider include peptic ulcer disease, GORD, gallstone disease, and pancreatic cancer.


Laboratory Tests

Any patient presenting with clinical features of gastric cancer, including haematemesis or melena, will warrant urgent routine bloods*, including a full blood count and liver function tests.

*A CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) is a marker of gastric malignancy and will be positive in 50% of patients with gastric cancer, however as it lacks sufficient sensitivity or specificity, it should not be used as a screening test in suspected cases, only as a monitor of disease progression / treatment response.


The primary investigation of any suspected gastric cancer is an urgent upper GI endoscopy*, allowing for the direct visualisation of any malignancy present and subsequent biopsies taken as needed. NICE guidelines suggest referring for an urgent OGD for any patients presenting with new-onset dysphagia or aged >55 years presenting with weight loss and either upper abdominal pain, reflux, or dyspepsia.

Biopsies from suspected gastric malignancies can be sent for:

  • Histology – for classification and grading of any neoplasia present
  • CLO test – for the presence of H. Pylori.
  • HER2/neu protein expression – this will allow for targeted monoclonal therapies if present.

*A CT scan may show thickening of the gastric wall but does not allow direct visualization or biopsy, hence OGD is the only definitive means of diagnosis.

Fig. 3 - (A) Early stage gastric cancer (B) Linitis Plastica, whereby the malignancy has invaded most of the stomach and produced a 'leather-bottle' type appearance

Fig. 3 – (A) Early stage gastric cancer (B) Linitis Plastica, whereby the malignancy has invaded most of the stomach and produced a ‘leather-bottle’ type appearance

For staging and in order to plan treatment, all patients need a CT Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis* and a staging laparoscopy (to look for peritoneal metastases), the most commonly used staging system for gastric cancers is TNM staging.

*As gastric cancers are not very “PET avid” (do not take up the radioactive tracer well), PET scans are rarely used in staging gastric cancers.


All patients should be discussed at a specialist upper GI cancer multi-disciplinary team meeting.

Ensuring adequate nutrition is essential and challenging in these patients. Each patient should undergo nutritional status assessment and be seen by a dietician if necessary. Many patients need formal nutritional support, both pre- or post-treatment, via a NG (nasogastric) or RIG (radiologically-inserted gastrostomy) tube.

Curative Treatment

The mainstay of curative treatment for gastric cancer is surgical. Patients who are fit enough should be offered peri-operative chemotherapy (3 cycles of neoadjuvant and 3 cycles of adjuvant*).

*This based on the MAGIC trial which showed a 13% 5-year survival advantage in patients who received peri-operative chemotherapy compared to those who underwent surgery alone. The chemotherapy regime used was epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-FU (ECF). 5-FU is usually replaced by its oral form, capecitabine.

The aim of surgery is to achieve loco-regional control by removing the tumour and its local lymph nodes. The type of operation performed depends on the region of the malignancy:

  • Proximal gastric cancers – total gastrectomy
  • Distal gastric cancers (antrum or pylorus) – subtotal gastrectomy

Many methods of reconstructing the alimentary anatomy have been tried historically. The most commonly used method is the Roux-en-Y reconstruction as it gives the best functional result, in particular with less bile reflux.

Patients with T1a tumours (tumours confined to the muscularis mucosa) may be offered an Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR). This has the advantage of a greatly reduced morbidity, mortality, and quality of life impact. However, it can only be used in early tumours due to the risk of local lymph node invasion in tumours that have invaded beyond the muscularis mucosae, making its actual use in clinical practice quite rare.

Fig 4 - Total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction

Fig 4 – Total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction

Gastrectomy Complications

Gastrectomy is a major operation. Mortality rates remain between 2-5% and quality of life remains poor for up to 6 months after surgery.

Specific complications include death (3-5%), anastomotic leak (5-10%), re-operation, dumping syndrome, and vitamin B12 deficiency (patients need 3-monthly vitamin B12 injections).

Palliative Management

Unfortuanterly, most patients will be offered only a palliative approach due to the extent of disease at time of presentation. This may include chemotherapy, best supportive care, stenting (for patients who have gastric outlet obstruction secondary to an obstructing cancer), or palliative surgery.

Surgical palliative care (usually distal gastrectomy or bypass surgery) is best used when stenting fails or is not available, yet can also be used cautiously in the palliation of bleeding gastric tumours.


The main complications of gastric cancers are gastric outlet obstruction, iron-deficiency anaemia, perforation and malnutrition.

The 10-year survival rate for stomach cancer overall is 15%, yet this will vary depending on staging. Most gastric cancers will present at an advanced stage with metastasis, which have a 5 year survival of <5%.

Key Points

  • The main risk factors for gastric cancer include male gender, H. pylori infection, increasing age, and smoking
  • All suspected cases should undergo urgent OGD
  • Biopsied samples of suspected gastric cancers should be sent off for histology, CLO test, and HER2/neu protein expression
  • Staging of gastric cancers should be done via CT chest-abdo-pelvis and staging laparoscopy
  • Curative treatment options for gastric cancers include total or subtotal gastrectomy with adjuvant and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy


Question 1 / 4
Which of the following is not considered a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma?


Question 2 / 4
What is Troisier's sign of malignancy?


Question 3 / 4
Which of the following imaging modalities are rarely used in the investigation of gastric cancers?


Question 4 / 4
What is a main complication following gastrectomy?


Further Reading

Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer
Cunningham D et al., NEJM

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