Varicose Veins

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Last updated: July 28, 2022
Revisions: 29

Last updated: July 28, 2022
Revisions: 29

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Varicose veins are tortuous dilated segments of vein associated with valvular incompetence.

They arise from incompetent valves, which permit blood flow from the deep venous system to the superficial venous system (at the sapheno-femoral junction and sapheno-popliteal junction, but other perforating veins exist). This results in venous hypertension and dilatation of the superficial venous system (Fig. 1)

98% of varicose veins are primary idiopathic varicose veins. Secondary causes may include deep venous thrombosis, pelvic masses (e.g. pregnancy, uterine fibroids, and ovarian masses), or arteriovenous malformations (such as Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome).

The Edinburgh Vein Study showed an age-adjusted prevalence rate for varicose veins of 39.7% in men and 32.2% in women, with around 40% of women affected during or after pregnancy. Further work has demonstrated that the risk of varicose veins increases every year by 1.9% in men and 2.6% in women.

Fig 1 - Varicose veins develop from valvular incompetence, resulting in dilation of the superficial venous system.

Figure 1 – Varicose veins develop from valvular incompetence, resulting in dilation of the superficial venous system.

Risk Factors

There are four major risk factors for the development of varicose veins:

  • Prolonged standing
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Family history

Clinical Features

Patients will typically present initially with cosmetic issues*, presenting with unsightly visible veins or discolouration of the skin

Worsening varicose veins may then cause aching or itching. Subsequent complications if left untreated can include skin changes, ulceration, thrombophlebitis, or bleeding (often presenting post-trauma).

On examination, varicosities will be present in the course of the great and / or short saphenous veins (Fig. 2). They can also present with clinical features of venous insufficiency, such as ulceration, varicose eczema, or haemosiderin deposition.

*In the UK, cosmetic issues alone does not qualify for treatment of varicose veins

Figure 2 – Varicose veins presenting on the posterior leg

Saphena Varix

A saphena varix is a dilatation of the saphenous vein at the saphenofemoral junction in the groin. As it displays a cough impulse, it is commonly mistaken for a femoral hernia; suspicion should be raised in any suspected femoral hernia if the patient has concurrent varicosities present in the rest of the limb. These can be best identified via duplex ultrasound and management is via high saphenous ligation.


A standardised reporting method for the clinical manifestations of varicose veins has been described by the CEAP Classification

Clinical Features

C0 -No visible or palpable signs of venous disease; C1 – Telangiectasias or reticular veins; C2 – Varicose veins (C2r – Recurrent varicose veins);  C3 – Edema; C4 – Changes in skin and subcutaneous tissue secondary to CVD (C4a – Pigmentation or eczema, C4b – Lipodermatosclerosis or atrophie blanche, C4c – Corona phlebectatica); C5 – Healed; C6 – Active venous ulcer (C6r Recurrent active venous ulcer)


Ep – Primary; Es – Secondary (Esi – Secondary intravenous, Ese – Secondary extravenous); Ec – Congenital; En – No cause identified


As: Superficial veins, Ap: Perforating veins, Ad: Deep veins, An: no venous location identified


Pr: Reflux, Po: Obstruction, Pr,o: Reflux and Obstruction, Pn: no venous pathophysiology identifiable

Table 1 – The CEAP classification for the clinical manifestations of varicose veins


Gold standard for varicose vein investigations is via duplex ultrasound (best done by a trained technician), assessing valve incompetence at the great/short saphenous veins and any perforators. Deep venous incompetence, occlusion (deep venous thrombosis) and stenosis must also be actively looked for.

Varicose Veins and Concurrent DVT

If a patient is identified to have a concurrent DVT, you cannot treat their superficial incompetence, as the venous blood will have no route back. Consequently, any patient with deep venous incompetence is typically offered non-surgical management.


Non-Invasive Treatments

Patient education is very important, such as avoiding prolonged standing, weight loss, and increase exercise (promotes calf muscle action).

NICE guidance only recommends the use of compression stockings (ensure to check the patients ABPI prior to use) if interventional treatment is not appropriate. This is because compression stockings are good at preventing complications of varicose veins but need to be worn for the rest of the patients life.

Any venous ulceration from deep venous incompetence generally requires four-layer bandaging (graduated compression aiming to move blood from distally to proximally), unless there is evidence arterial insufficiency.

Surgical Treatment

In the UK, patients with varicose veins should be referred to a vascular service if they meet the following NICE criteria:

  • Symptomatic primary or recurrent varicose veins
  • Lower‑limb skin changes, such as pigmentation or eczema, thought to be caused by chronic venous insufficiency
  • Superficial vein thrombosis (characterised by the appearance of hard, painful veins) with suspected venous incompetence
  • A venous leg ulcer (a break in the skin below the knee that has not healed within 2 weeks)

The treatment options that are available include:

  • Vein ligation, stripping, and avulsion – making an incision in the groin (or popliteal fossa) and identifying the responsible, refluxing vein, before tying it off and stripping it away. The surgeon must be aware of surrounding arterial and nervous structures, such as the saphenous and sural nerves.
  • Foam sclerotherapy – injecting a sclerosing (irritating) agent directly into the varicosed veins, causing an inflammatory response that closes off the vein (Fig. 3). This is done under ultrasound guidance to ensure the foam does not enter the deep venous system, however this method only requires a local anaesthetic.
  • Thermal ablation – which involves heating the vein from inside (via radiofrequency or laser catheters), causing irreversible damage to the vein which closes it off. This is done under ultrasound guidance and also may be performed under local (or general) anaesthetic.
Fig 3 - Foam sclerotherapy, performed under ultrasound guidance.

Figure 3 – Foam sclerotherapy, performed under ultrasound guidance.


Untreated varicose veinswill worsen over time and indeed many patients who have treated varicose veins often require re-intervention surgery.

Whilst the complications will be specific for each procedure, typical complications seen post-operatively include haemorrhage, thrombophlebitis (important for foam or ablation treatments), DVT (important for any endovenous treatments), disease recurrence, and nerve damage (specifically saphenous or sural nerves).

Key Points

  • Varicose veins are tortuous dilated segments of vein associated with valvular incompetence
  • Risk factors include prolonged standing, obesity, pregnancy, and positive family history
  • Most will simply be a cosmetic issue however can present with pain, aching, swelling, or itching
  • Gold standard investigation is duplex ultrasound
  • Management options in those that meet the criteria include vein ligation and stripping, foam sclerotherapy, and thermal ablation