Ear, Nose and Throat
Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgery, also termed Otorhinolaryngology, is the branch of surgery that focuses on conditions affecting the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, and certain conditions of the head and neck. It is a speciality that combines various surgical techniques and procedures, to culminate in a broad spectrum of diagnoses.
The ear is divided into the external ear, middle ear, and inner ear, and conditions can affect each section. Infection is the most common presentation for the external and middle ear, and significant complications can develop as a consequence of these infections. Vertigo is most often attributed to inner ear pathologies, however there are multiple causes of inner ear pathology to be aware of.
Epistaxis is one of the most common presentations to emergency departments, however rhinosinusitis (both acute and chronic) is seen equally as much in primary care settings. Common conditions affecting the throat include tonsillitis and obstructive sleep apnoea, well worth looking over these articles, even for the non-surgical trainees.
Neck lumps contain a wide range of potential diagnoses, ranging from benign to sinister. Learning a good approach to neck lumps, in differentials and examination, is essential (especially as they are commonly examined areas too!). Thyroid cancers and head and neck cancers are specialties within themselves, however knowing a good overview is very important for every surgical trainee.