The prostate gland is the largest accessory gland in the male reproductive system. It is positioned inferiorly to the neck of the bladder and superiorly to the external urethral sphincter, with the levator ani muscle lying inferolaterally to the gland.
Most men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia with increasing age. This will typically result in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), either voiding symptoms or storage symptoms. Most cases can be treated medically initially, however surgical options are also possible for those not responding to first-line treatment. Rarely, the prostate parenchyma can also become inflamed, or even develop an abscess, termed prostatitis.
However, any cases of LUTS in an older man should also be suspected for prostate cancer, as prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Combination of clinical features, PSA levels, and imaging can all be used to investigate prostate cancer. Management can be conservative or surgical.