The external nose consists of both bony and cartilaginous components. The bony component is located more superiorly, composed of contributions from the nasal bones, maxillae, and frontal bone, whilst the cartilaginous component is located more inferiorly, composed of two lateral cartilages, two alar cartilages and one septal cartilage.
The most common condition presenting to the emergency department associated with the nose is epistaxis. The vast majority are anterior bleeds, originating for Little’s area, and most can be managed with conservative treatment. However, epistaxis can be serious, with patients becoming haemodynamically unstable as a result if left untreated, therefore all patients presenting with epistaxis need to be carefully observed.
Rhinosinusitis is inflammation of the nasal mucosa, which can be either acute or chronic. Management is often symptomatic and the majority of cases do not require antimicrobials, however recurrent or chronic cases should be investigated, as can have a significant impact on quality of life.