The bladder is a pelvic organ, used for both the storage of urine and its expulsion. Its blood supply is primarily derived from the internal iliac vessels, and its nerve supply is from both the autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and somatic arms of the nervous system.
Bladder cancer is fortunately a less common cancer, however has risk factors including smoking and increasing age. Management options for bladder cancer include intravesical therapies and more substantial surgical options, therefore learning about bladder cancer is an important topic for surgical trainees.
Urinary incontinence is a complex presentation and there are multiple causes. Subtypes include Stress incontinence, Urge incontinence, Mixed incontinence, Overflow incontinence, and Continuous incontinence. Careful assessment and investigation of the underlying subtype will allow for appropriate management for the patient.